本文摘要:The MIT Technology Review published on Wednesday a news report about the first-known experiment to create genetically modified human embryos in the United States using a gene-editing tool called CRISPR.《麻省理工技术评论》杂志16日报导,美国用于基因编辑工具CRISPR展开了


The MIT Technology Review published on Wednesday a news report about the first-known experiment to create genetically modified human embryos in the United States using a gene-editing tool called CRISPR.《麻省理工技术评论》杂志16日报导,美国用于基因编辑工具CRISPR展开了本国首例转基因人类胚胎实验。Shoukhrat Mitalipov, director of the Oregon Health Science Universitys Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy, reportedly led the new research. Mitalipov and the university would not confirm details of the research to CNN.据报导,俄勒冈公共卫生科学大学胚胎干细胞与基因治疗中心主任舒赫拉特?米塔利波夫是这项新的研究的领头人。舒赫拉特及校方不愿向CNN透漏研究的细节。

Results of the peer-reviewed study are expected to be published soon in a scientific journal. No further information will be provided before then, according to an emailed statement from the universitys press office. Another researcher cited in the MIT report, the Salk Institutes Jun Wu, did not reply to CNNs request for comment.该大学新闻办公室的邮件声明称之为:“同行评审的结果将在近日公开发表在一家科学杂志上。在此之前无法透漏更加多信息。”《麻省理工技术评论》中提及的另一位研究员,索尔克研究所的吴军(音译)也没恢复CNN的置评催促。

Previously, Mitalipov and his colleagues reported the first success in cloning human stem cells in 2013, successfully reprogramming human skin cells back to their embryonic state. In 2007, a research team led by Mitalipov announced they created the first cloned monkey embryo and extracted stem cells from it.据报导,舒赫拉特及其同事在2013年首次顺利克隆人类干细胞,新的编码人类皮肤细胞,使其完全恢复到胚胎状态。2007年,舒赫拉特领导的研究小组宣告他们建构了首个克隆猴胚胎并借此萃取了干细胞。


The MIT Technology Review reported that the researchers in Portland, Oregon, edited the DNA of a large number of one-cell embryos, specifically targeting genes associated with inherited diseases in those embryos. The MIT Technology Review could not determine which disease genes had been chosen for editing in the new research.《麻省理工技术评论》报导称之为,俄勒冈州波特兰市的研究人员专门以遗传疾病涉及基因为靶基因,对大量单细胞胚胎展开DNA编辑。该杂志无法确认这项新的研究自由选择哪些病原基因展开编辑。

Previously, scientists in China were the first in the world to reveal attempts to modify genes in human embryos using CRISPR. Three separate papers were published in scientific journals describing various studies in China on gene editing in human embryos.此前,中国科学家在全球首次公开发表了用于基因编辑技术改动人类胚胎基因的尝试,在科学杂志上公开发表了三篇有所不同的论文,讲解中国在人类胚胎基因编辑方面的各项研究。Yet the research has already generated attention and controversy.但是,美国的研究依然引起了注目与争议。

This is pushing the research faster than I thought we would see, said Dana Carroll, professor of biochemistry at the University of Utah, if the MIT Technology Review report rings true. Carroll has used CRISPR in his own studies, but was not involved in the new research.犹他大学生物化学系教授德纳?卡罗尔说道:“如果《麻省理工技术评论》的报导是知道,那么这项研究的速度早已远超过了我的预期。”卡罗尔曾在自己的研究中用于基因编辑技术,但并没参予这项新的研究。The controversy surrounding gene-editing in human embryos partly stems from concern that the changes CRISPR makes in DNA can be passed down to the offspring of those embryos later in life, from generation to generation. Down the line, that could possibly impact the genetic makeup of humans in erratic ways.环绕着人类胚胎基因编辑不存在争辩,部分原因是因为担忧基因编辑技术对DNA的转变日后不会一代相接一代传授给那些胚胎的后代。

这样一来,可能会对人类基因构成产生不稳定的影响。There is also considerable concern about off-target effects, such as making mutations at sites in the genome other than the intended target, said Carroll. In other words, an edit made in one area of DNA possibly could cause problems in another, as a ripple or domino effect, which could be concerning.卡罗尔说道:“对于脱靶效应的忧虑也很多,比如造成目标基因组以外的基因再次发生变异。”换句话说,对DNA的一个区域展开编辑有可能在另一区域引起问题,就看起来连锁反应或多米诺骨牌效应,这点也有一点忧虑。


Some CRISPR critics also have argued that gene-editing may give way to eugenics and to allowing embryos to be edited with certain features in order to develop so-called designer babies.一些基因编辑技术批评者还指出,基因编辑可能会给优生创造条件,导致人们为了孕育出所谓的“自定义婴儿”而编辑胚胎的某种特征。Though, not all experts are too concerned.不过,并非所有专家都忧心忡忡。The enthusiasm surrounding gene-editing in human embryos partly stems from the promise CRISPR has shown in editing away and treating devastating intractable diseases. Earlier this year, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report on human genome editing, addressing potential applications of gene editing, including the possible prevention or treatment of disease.科学家们热衷人类胚胎基因编辑研究,部分原因是基因编辑技术早已展现避免和化疗致命性疑难杂症的前景。




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